I'm most interested about this in Windows computers. When you burn a CD or DVD, does the disc contain metadata or some other information about the computer which burned it (i.e., computer name, owner, date created, etc.)?
Short answer: No.
Provided that whatever you're burning doesn't contain any such info. Let's presume for a moment that you're burning an iso-file with all zeroes, or any generic ISO at all, for that matter. In that case, the iso, referring to its standard iso9660, is an image of the filesystem, and every file on it, and therefore what you burn to the disk is whatever the iso contains, nothing more, nothing less. If burning individual files, you're burning file contents, nothing more, nothing less.
It is theoretically possible to store the metadata on the CD-R as data not listed in the TOC, but there is no reason to do so.