I've managed to get sharp fonts in CMD, Device Manager, etc at once using standard Windows settings UI (i.e., without changing the compatibility settings or using the auto-start registry script).
Basically, you need to go to the Control Panel > Appearance and Personalization > Display and set a custom scaling level to 125%.
The nuance is that the UI won't let you to apply the setting if you already have the recommended 125% setting in the Settings > Display. But there are at least two workarounds:
Workaround 1: You can just set the scaling level to some other value in the Settings > Display UI, just before changing the settings back to 125% in the custom scaling level UI.
Workaround 2: You can set the custom scaling level to some other value in the custom scaling level UI, Apply, choose to re-logon later in the popped dialog, then set the custom scaling level back to 125%, Apply, and re-logon manually.
I've tested both workarounds and they both worked on two of my laptops.