This KB article acknowledges that Outlook 2013 won't connect to Exchange using EAS (Exchange ActiveSync) for non-Hotmail accounts, i.e., a corporate Exchange server. There is also a similar six-year old question on the topic, as well as further discussion here.
Has the situation changed any for Outlook 2016? The reason to ask is that the "free" Windows 10 mail client does support EAS connections (the same was true for Windows 8/8.1 too), so I would think Outlook would as well. It seems rather odd that I should lose functionality when "upgrading" my Microsoft-provided email client.
(And, no, other options aren't possible, such as the much-preferred Outlook Anywhere feature; the only supported "off site" configuration is EAS--for mobile devices.)
I'm trying to get Microsoft to weigh in: Can't add non-Hotmail Exchange ActiveSync account in Outlook 2016 .