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Questions tagged [computer-architecture]

Computer architecture refers to various aspects of computer system designs which can affect compatibility, performance, and interfacing. Some issues related to computer architecture can be processor word size, memory bus size, or protocol implementation.

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Creating an overflow for a 8 bit binary

Hi everyone I am new to this site, apologies if this is in the wrong section. I have made a 8 bit diagram to represent 2's compliment however when the binary reaches the maximum of 255 I would like to ...
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Changing endianness of a file?

a bit of a noob question: how would I convert a file's endianness, so that it went from this 00 00 00 78 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 F8 00 00 00 18 to this: 78 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 F8 00 00 00 18 00 00 ...
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DDRAM Rack and channels

I have a question regarding the DDRAM architecture: I was reading a scientific paper regarding a new processor that reduces power consumption while keeping a very high level of performances, and as ...
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Can one use 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit sized pointers on a 64-bit machine?

I just did a rough calculation around the max size of an unsigned 64-bit integer, which is: 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 q5 q4 t b m t h Looking at AWS's hardware specifications on their ...
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calculate avg time to read bytes on a disk

Question gives me following parameters: track seek time = 10ms (milli-second). The rotation speed of disk= 9000 revs per minute Sectors on each track = 600 Each sector can store 512 bytes of data....
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How can 4 GB be equal to 32 bits memory address?

Forgive me for being naive to ask this question. How can 4 GB be equal to 32 bits memory address? If i am not mistaken, 4GB * 1024 * 1024 * 1024 = 4,294,697,296 bytes of memory cells. So, why we don'...
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I want to know the real speed of SDRAM [closed]

I looked a lot of sources, but nowhere information about speed and access latency of static RAM, unlike other types of memory like SDRAM and other.
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Inserting CMOS battery upside down

What happens when CMOS battery is inserted upside down? What is it capable of damaging? Power supply, entire motherboard or specific ICs.
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Graphic card lights up but newly built PC won't turn on

This is my first time of and I assembled my new PC and it is not starting for some reason. Though, strange my GPU is lights up but nothing else. I've checked the compatibility of each devices and they'...
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In memory mapped IO , does memory and IO share same memory space or IO has a some reserved momory in RAM?

I was solving a MCQ question and got stuck at this question. I referred a book(Computer Organisation by Carl Hamacher) and found out that in Memory Mapped IO, memory and IO share the same address ...
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39 views

Do any chip architectures feature instruction primitives for complex numbers?

Just curious if there are any computer chips with builtin operations for manipulating Complex numbers, or if one must roll their own using Real ops for now.
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What is “Out-of-band Remote Access”?

DMIDECODE: Handle 0x001E, DMI type 30, 6 bytes Out-of-band Remote Access Manufacturer Name: Intel Inbound Connection: Disabled Outbound Connection: Enabled LSHW: *-remoteaccess UNCLAIMED ...
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pthread_attr_setaffinity_np and logical core

I am a bit confused about CPU logical cores and physical cores and scheduler affinity. Let's assume there is a 4 physical core CPU where each core supports 2 hyperthreads. Henceforth, according to /...
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How to disable/enable AES-NI on different platforms?

I'd like to benchmark disk encryption on different platforms (Alpine, Win7). One of the tests would be to compare the AES-NI on/off speeds. Is there a way to turn this feature off? (afaik. it is ...
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AMD RX 580 8GB not detected by BIOS and Windows

I have a big problem with my system. I just bought and AMD RX 580 8GB Sapphire Nitro+ and I can't install it. When I plug it in the motherboard and PSU (with both 6 pin and 8 pin) the GPU led start, ...
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Unattend.xml file - Processor Architecture

I'm trying to install a Windows 10 image using Windows Deployment Services. In the unattend.xml file, processor architecture is defined as below: <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Setup" ...
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1answer
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What is a processor core at the hardware level?

I have been studying how processors work and its different parts including the ALU, registers, control unit, and a question came to my mind concerning multi-core processors. What are the cores made of?...
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307 views

BUSYBOX: How do I check if I have a 32 or a 64 architecture?

I am on a Busybox and uname –a results: Linux 3.14.28-1.12 #1 SMP Thu Jun 15 08:53:06 CEST 2017 armv7l GNU/Linux. Is this a 32 bit architecture or how can I check it?
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Programming a stress test [closed]

Background: I really enjoy programming at a lower level to accomplish core computer functionality. Whether it be paging algorithms or kernels I like to recreate simple core functions. After ...
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130 views

X86 Address Space Controller?

I understand that on x86, certain ranges of physical memory addresses are mapped to the BIOS, others to RAM and yet others to I/O devices. I would like to know which hardware component is ...
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Is it correct to say that main memory (RAM) is a part of CPU?

I recently had an argue with my English teacher, because of text given to us for translation. It states: The pieces of equipment making up the computer system are known as hardware. The most ...
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Intel Phi Coprocessing for Desktop PC

My question is, if I want really take advantage of all the novel advances for data-spec'd computing that are available right now, i.e.: Xeon Phi (and upcoming Knights Mill), 3dx point ssds, ect, Can ...
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Intermediate code by virtual machines

I was reading about instruction set and I came across following line from WIKI Some virtual machines that support bytecode as their ISA such as Smalltalk, the Java virtual machine, and Microsoft'...
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1answer
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Do we have ROM in Von Neuman Architecture? [closed]

According to Von Neumann architecture ,we have a single Program and Data Memory which is called RAM ,and ROM is a program Memory in case of harvard architecture so do we have ROM in Von Neumann ...
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How is the word size often same as pointer size?

A pointer stores a memory address , so its size is the size of a memory address which depends on no of memory locations . On the other hand , Word size is the largest unit ,that an instruction can ...
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What is the difference in instruction completion rate, instruction throughput, instructions per clock? [closed]

From what I understand: ICR (Instruction Completion Rate): Is (# of instructions / time) Instruction Throughput: Is usually an average of the number of instructions completed each clock cycle. IPC (...
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1answer
879 views

Is there any existing CPU implementation which uses one's complement?

Programming languages like Ada or VHDL define an integer datatype as -2^31+1 to 2^31-1. This rule goes back to CPUs with an one's complement ALU. It allows the program to run on one's and two's ...
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1answer
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What is a RAM Bank? How is it defined?

I've been looking around, and I can't seem to get a solid answer on what a Memory Bank is in RAM. Some say that it's something like a channel, others like a DIMM slot, others say it's just an ...
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1answer
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why separate floating point registers intel x64 processors

Why are there separate floating point registers xmm0-xmm15 in intel x64 CPUs? I know xmm's are also used for vector operations where some instruction(SSE*) is executed on several numbers in one ...
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1answer
1k views

Relationship between the size of CPU registers and main memory

I have read this post however I still have a question. I understand that saying 32 bit processor implies registers of size 32 bit long each of which can hold up to 2^32 data. What does it mean saying ...
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1answer
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Computer needs several attempts to power on? (Much like a bad car)

I've had a look at the available stack exchange forums and i have concluded that this one might be the most relevant for my question, though it does adhere to personal computing. Please inform me if ...
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1answer
91 views

what is the the reason CPU utilization gets high?

For simplicity, lets consider I have a single core processor. I have 2 task running in parallel. My understanding is the processor will run the tasks in round robin fashion i.e. one at time time. ...
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The use of micro-instruction cache

I learnt recently that Sandy Bridge uses a micro-instruction cache akin to the execution trace cache in Netburst. From what I know, many of the simpler x86 instructions (those translating into 4 micro-...
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estimating copying 1GB file from one USB flash memory to second USB flash memory

Into host USB (image below) there are plugged two flash memories. I would like to estimate minimal time of copying one file 1GB to second flash memory. It is fairly difficult for me, I assume ...
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Is it possible to 'blend' two processors from different computers into one “supercomputer”? [duplicate]

Maybe this is a little bit crazy, and I have the suspicion that it is impossible, however here is the situation. I have an old Xbox which I don't use, and I think it's a shame that all that storage, ...
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What the technical difference between Serviceability, Manageability and Maintainability of a system?

Aren't Serviceability and Maintainability almost serve the same purpose in term of IT architecture so how to they exactly differ?
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operations process in a computer

Is it true that all high-level operations in a computer (say, copying, pasting, web surfing, running apps etc) are all finally converted to micro-operations (say, arithmetic, logical and shift) and ...
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How byte addressing works?

I am new to computer architecture. So correct me if I am wrong. If a memory module consists of 8 memory chips and if each chip stores 4bits per address then by applying an address to the address pin ...
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What does it mean (to decode) in the execution cycle

In a typical instruction cycle, fetching, decoding, executing together form one cycle. My question is about the decoding step: What is the part that gets decoded, is it the instruction's opcode? If so,...
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Using a Second PC as a Resource-Extension [duplicate]

Background: I currently have 2 PCs at my disposal: A 6-month old Dell tower PC, running Windows 10 A 2-year old custom-built PC, with an Intel Core i7 processor, an NVIDIA G-Force GTX series ...
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1answer
203 views

Is there a difference CPU Clock and Instruction Clock?

I am a bit confused between CPU clock and instruction clock. I brought the following figure from this source as illustration. Does instruction clock imply the time it takes by the cpu clock to execute ...
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3answers
362 views

CPU clock cycle and instructions interpretation

I am new in computer architecture but I know the main topics since I had it as a course before. My question is in fact little deep and related to CPU clock cycle and how processor interpret ...
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1answer
245 views

The main difference between Superscalar and Parallelism

In superscalar processing, more than one instruction is executed in parallel at each core, so how would that differ from parallel processing then? Thank you.
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Is extra CPU on USB dongle possible? [closed]

Is it theoretically possible to build a local cluster for distributed computing using any type of a dongle plugged into a USB or HDMI port, and connecting to the Linux console inside over SSH just ...
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Why do we need a CPU clock [closed]

I'm very confused regarding the working of a cpu clock.The following questions arise in my mind-What is the need of a clock in a cpu ? What does synchronization mean in context of working of a cpu ? ...
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1answer
827 views

How does physical distance between processor and memory/cache affect data transfer speeds

The L1 cache is situated inside the cpu to speed up the process of data access but since electrical signals travel at the speed of light(almost constant) which is blazingly fast then how does distance ...
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3answers
176 views

Is a BIOS update in a laptop done by altering some microcode?

How does a BIOS get updated? Is it by microprogramming or microcoding? If not, then what happens?
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1answer
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'Power saver' mode in personal computers?

While working with laptops 'Battery saver' mode plays an important role. But what is the main reason behind this. Does the switching mode power supply woks in low-dissipation state or it's the ...
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2answers
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Do modern motherboards allow a PCI-E device to access ram without involving the CPU?

I'm doing research into novel Computer architectures and I need a clearer picture of how Memory Control works in a PC. In short, I would like to know whether a PCI-E device, such as a GPU can access ...
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How does CPU access BIOS instructions stored in external memory?

During the process of booting, CPU reads address of system BIOS from the Reset Vector and jumps to the location where BIOS is stored. My question here is: As BIOS is stored on some external memory ...