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Questions tagged [cpu-architecture]

CPU Architecture refers to a collection of parameters about the design of CPU realized by its manufacturer, such as: its bit-ness or data bus width (16, 32, 64 bits) , Instruction Set (RISC, CISC,...), Memory Management, Threading, Virtualization support, etc

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Do AMD CPUs still produce more heat than Intel’s? [on hold]

I mean to ask this as a normal user. I don’t really want to go too deep into technical details like different architectures, more or less cores, maximum top speed, or things like that, without the ...
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How the speculative load and store happen in modern Intel processor?

I think the store queue is used in modern Intel processors for storing both memory address and store data. They do not go to L1 cache till the commit stage. But I am not 100% sure if it is correct or ...
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24 views

How does a Processor handle program counter and stack pointer registers when an Interrupt occurs [closed]

Correct me if I'm wrong. According to my understanding when an interrupt occurs on a processor, the processor stores the value of the program counter into the system stack and decrements the stack ...
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CPU Processing Limit Capped [closed]

I am using Video Rendering software and whenever I try to render a video, my CPU shows me the processing of a maximum 70-72%. Now I do heavy rendering, so I need the speed. Please tell me, how do I ...
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48 views

How does multicore CPU thread synchronisation work at the hardware level?

I'm trying to understand how multicore CPU's implement thread synchronisation at the hardware level. From my research so far I've found that the process involves using a location in memory to act as ...
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1answer
83 views

Virtualization not supported when attempting to run Docker for Windows on an AMD C-60

My Acer Aspire One, model AO725, doesn't support virtualization technology. Is there any alternative way to run Docker for Windows in this case? Processor: AMD C-60 APU with Radeon(tm) HD Graphics 1....
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15 views

Instruction set and pseudo-command

I use 'objdump' on linux in a variety of binaries and it returns their assembly. The commands that I receive is 'real' commands or pseudo-command? I have read that there are some commands which are a ...
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If a CPU has separate top-level instruction cache and data cache, is it harvard architecture? [duplicate]

Most modern computers are based on the Von Neumann architecture, such that instructions and data share one memory. While trying to implement a micro processor using hardware design languages, the ...
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1answer
66 views

Gives TSX-NI an advantage for running virtual machines? [closed]

My question is about CPU architecture and the instruction set extension TSX-NI. For which usage scenario is it useful, and especially is it useful for web development or running virtual machines and ...
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1answer
53 views

Optimal CPI calculation confusion

I am reading https://insidehpc.com/2017/07/cycles-per-instruction-matters/: For example, if a certain part of the code takes 1200 cycles and executes 600 instructions, then the CPI would be 1200/...
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1answer
30 views

Creating vCPU to physical CPU?

Say I have 8 core physical CPU system which supports hyperthreading which is mapped to 16 vCPU. Is it possible to configure increase or decrease the vCPU to 24 vCPU or 12 vCPU or this setting/...
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2answers
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Does conversion from assembly language to Binary language take place during decode stage in a processor?

I am newbie to computer science and here's what I think goes on in the FDEW cycle in a processor, 1.Fetch the instruction in assembly language 2.Decode to Binary language 3.Perform execution 4.Write ...
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How is computer with FPU classified in Flynn's taxonomy?

How is computer with FPU classified in Flynn's taxonomy? If machine has a CPU with single core, but also has FPU, is that SISD or SIMD?
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1answer
179 views

Linux : Understanding load average and % CPU?

When I execute top command on my ubuntu system I see below results top - 07:58:58 up 1:21, 1 user, load average: 0.82, 0.73, 0.55 Tasks: 293 total, 1 running, 292 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 ...
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1answer
73 views

How do you instruct the CPU to load instructions? [closed]

From my understanding, a computer simply follows instructions. So my question is that when you turn on the computer, how is it exactly that the instructions are loaded into the CPU? Don't you have to ...
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11 views

Privacy / Content of small dumps

In https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/drivers/debugger/small-memory-dump it is explained that even a small memory dump under windows (limited fixed size, i think 64 / 256 kb) will ...
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20 views

Changing endianness of a file?

a bit of a noob question: how would I convert a file's endianness, so that it went from this 00 00 00 78 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 F8 00 00 00 18 to this: 78 00 00 00 80 00 00 00 F8 00 00 00 18 00 00 ...
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1answer
201 views

How is the micro-op cache tagged?

According to Real World Technologies’ article on “Intel’s Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture”: “Sandy Bridge’s uop cache is organized into 32 sets and 8 ways, with 6 uops per line, for a total of 1.5K ...
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2answers
41 views

Find core used from CPU utilization?

I have average and peak CPU utilization(in percentage) of a linux server with me . Mainly couple of web apps are deployed on the machine. I need to decide what AWS machine suits me based on that. AWS ...
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4answers
1k views

How to make a 32-bit program from a 64-bit version?

Many software only supports 64-bit machine because the market for 32-bit is small now. However, for those who are stuck with 32-bit machines, this means newer versions cannot be installed, and this ...
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0answers
43 views

AMD Steamroller (A10-7850K) SP FLOPs per Cycle; 8 or 16?

From what I read in this answer, and depending on how it's interpreted, the Steamroller-based A10-7850K should be capable of either; 32 SP FLOPs per cycle (16 per core pair), achieving 473.6 SP ...
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2answers
112 views

How to do measure execution time of cpu?

I want to measure execution time of cpus and compare them like bencmark websites. as I know we have a formula for the calculate that. Execution time = CPI * I * 1/CR But I stuck at the formula. I ...
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1answer
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In Linux, is concept of Process similar to Container (in microservices?) [closed]

Process is executing an instance of an application. Every process got its State, ID, address space etc, and isolated to each other. It looks similar to Container that runs a specific service? In some ...
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3answers
127 views

Do process switch between different cores?

Will a process switch between different cores to increase performance? If the process does jump between cores, which components are shared across cores? L1-L3 cache, registers or memory?
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CPU usage by CPU component

CPUs are made up of multiple components, such as the ALU and CU. Hyper-threading allows multiple threads to run conconcurrently where there's available resource in these components. On a single core ...
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1answer
51 views

pthread_attr_setaffinity_np and logical core

I am a bit confused about CPU logical cores and physical cores and scheduler affinity. Let's assume there is a 4 physical core CPU where each core supports 2 hyperthreads. Henceforth, according to /...
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2answers
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How are decimal operations calculated?

I understand the regular CPU does arithmetic for whole number types (e.g. integers) as well as bitwise operations; the FPU does floating point arithmetic. However I'm trying to learn how/where does ...
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2answers
124 views

Windows 10 CPU speed command

What is the command-line command I could use and get the CPU speed specifications? If there are options to also get other CPU specs I could use that too if someone could explain it to me.
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1answer
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Why wouldn't security flaw affect AMD processor?

According to this news article there's a newly found security flaw in processors. However, the article also claims that it only may affect Intel processors and not AMD ones. I thought they were using ...
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1answer
42 views

Which measur unit process cycle in processor? [closed]

i have this question in my exam Process cycle in processor measure by: A) pulse. B)Rate C)cycle D)time Which one is correct! Thank's
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0answers
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How to run executable without specific CPU flags?

I'd like to test the behavior of an Linux ELF executable on a processor that doesn't have some CPU flags such as aes and sse2 given a processor that has those flags. What is the simplest way to ...
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2answers
1k views

What is DEP, and how do I find out if my processor supports it?

Coreinfo shows me a bunch of instructions my processor supports. However one that I'm interested in is DEP Data Execution Prevention. DEP is listed as something the CPU must support in Windows 2016 ...
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1answer
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Is there a way to tell if my hardware supports specific instructions? [duplicate]

Microsoft says, for Windows 2016 Server, Minimum: 1.4 GHz 64-bit processor Compatible with x64 instruction set Supports NX and DEP Supports CMPXCHG16b, LAHF/SAHF, and PrefetchW Supports Second Level ...
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1answer
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What is the importance of clock in flipflops

I understand that the difference between latches and flipflops that the value stored in flipflops can be changed on pulse only in clock intervals. But what is the real need to do it? I mean if value ...
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4answers
2k views

Why Hyper-Threading provides 2 virtual cores but not more?

Here is an explanation of Hyper-Threading found on Wikipedia: For each processor core that is physically present, the operating system addresses two virtual (logical) cores and shares the workload ...
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0answers
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x86/amd64 architecture Malware on ARM architecture malware Detonation

Situation: Thinking of making a malware detonator using an ARM single board computer, which has a file scanner in it. Problem: I am scanning computers (x86 and/or amd64), therefore malwares will be ...
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12answers
27k views

Why do we have CPUs with all the cores at the same speeds and not combinations of different speeds?

In general if you are buying a new computer you would determine which processor to buy by what your expected workload will be. Performance in games tends to be determined by single core speed, whereas ...
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1answer
149 views

X86 Address Space Controller?

I understand that on x86, certain ranges of physical memory addresses are mapped to the BIOS, others to RAM and yet others to I/O devices. I would like to know which hardware component is ...
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3answers
4k views

Is it correct to say that main memory (RAM) is a part of CPU?

I recently had an argue with my English teacher, because of text given to us for translation. It states: The pieces of equipment making up the computer system are known as hardware. The most ...
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1answer
267 views

Why are certain features disabled on K-Variant Intel i7 CPUs?

I was looking around Intel's Ark database and comparing some CPUs, specifically the i7-7700 and i7-7700k. I then noticed that some features are disabled on the K-Variant chip, like vPro Technology, ...
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2answers
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What's the difference between a superscalar and a vector processor?

They both can process multiple instructions in the same time, but I suppose there is a fundamental difference which explains why there are two names and we haven't just switched to using superscalar ...
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1answer
5k views

What are the north and south bridges of a motherboard?

I've been looking for open-source BIOS and I found coreboot (not enough rep for a link here); but when I tried to figure out if my motherboard or chipset was supported they only mentioned "northbridge"...
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1answer
382 views

How to compare BCM4708 with an Intel i5 M520 CPU for router and NAS

I currently have an Intel i5 M520 based computer running as a linux based router + + Asterisk box + backup server file server [ rsnapshot and AES encrypted disk ]. From a CPU point of view I'm sure ...
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1answer
1k views

Is there any existing CPU implementation which uses one's complement?

Programming languages like Ada or VHDL define an integer datatype as -2^31+1 to 2^31-1. This rule goes back to CPUs with an one's complement ALU. It allows the program to run on one's and two's ...
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4answers
804 views

Maximum Memory on 32 bits architectures

My question is simple. On a 32 bits architecture, the maximum RAM is 4GB because the cpu can handle 32 bits addresses. So 2^32 is 4096. My question is why the unit is GB instead of Gb??. we are ...
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1answer
886 views

Is it possible to have CPU without fan and running only on Heatsink?

I have more than 100s of dell 3052 which most of them have freezing issue. I tried all of the possible solution software-wise and it did not help. Eventually I tried to open the unit and compare the ...
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0answers
282 views

How are the CPU-modes applied? (x86)

The normal operating mode of the CPU is the Protected Mode. It still starts in Real-mode for backwards compatibility reasons. Real mode, also called real address mode, is an operating mode of all ...
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2answers
356 views

Using DLL's and other files on an architecture basis

I'm currently making an OpenGL application in Visual Studio 2015, and have successfully linked and included all my things for GLFW, GLEW, etc. However when I run my application, I need to include ...
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0answers
509 views

Is there a pure 64bit Instruction set?

I read on wikipedia that the x86_64 ISA. Which is the 64 bit version of the x86 set. Is Backwards compatible with software written for the x86 architecture not because of emulations but because it is ...
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157 views

What Control unit has the power in a multicore cpu?

A processor with cores is just a bunch of single cpus thrown together on a single IC (Integrated circuit)(That's why my /proc/cpuinfo shows 4 of them). A CPU is made up of some sub-units always ...