If your memory is OK, you may have a faulty processor.
The processor's integrated memory controller (IMC) can be a cause of memory problems. Simple memory operations like reading data from particular memory locations may work normally, but the processor's ability to perform essential memory management operations, including virtual memory, aren't tested by memory testing programs like Windows Memory Diagnostic or Memtest86+.
Another possibility is a faulty cache. Caches are small amounts of memory inside the processor used to accelerate memory accesses. Although your processor should be able to detect cache errors (and generate a machine-check exception when that happens, causing a
WHEA_UNCORRECTABLE_ERROR BSOD), it is not impossible for data in cache to get corrupted and cause memory corruption without the processor itself noticing. That, too, would not be detected by memory testing software.
To check the IMC, download Intel's processor diagnostic program and run an IMC test. To check the processor caches, download Prime95 and run the small FFTs torture test (your processor may get very hot or the fans may run loud; this is normal). If either test fails, you'll need to replace the processor.
Since you've run a memory test and have found errors, it should be pretty obvious that one or more memory modules need to be replaced. I can glean more information from the report you've posted
The errors occur at one particular region of the memory, around 0x19BDD79F0, which would limit the problem to one module. The address suggests, but does not confirm, that the problem is in one of the Patriot Memory modules.
Because memory on most systems, including yours, works best in pairs, try removing both modules of either brand and rerun the test. If that doesn't work, reinstall the modules you removed and remove the other pair. If the problem clears up, you can use the system normally until you get replacement memory modules.
I should note that Windows 10 uses more advanced memory management techniques, including virtual memory compression to maximize performance on systems with limited memory. Although your system has 16 GB of memory, Windows will still compress the data in memory by default (my desktop has 32 GB and is no different here). Memory errors are detected readily during compression and decompression of data and will immediate cause the operation to fail, causing the system to crash. Memory errors affecting uncompressed application or other data would "simply" result in application crashes or corrupted files (though it can still cause OS crashes). For this reason, Windows 10 is more sensitive to memory errors than previous versions of Windows.