Regarding question 1:
LAN games using (UDP) broadcasts typically choose the network interface which uses the lowest metric for its broadcast route (i.e. ip 255.255.255.255). Most probably your default network interface (e.g. your NIC) has the lowest metric so the games broadcast e.g. on your 192.168.1.0/24 LAN instead of the VPN. You can check your route ...
Network interface cards are usually programmed to listen for three types of messages. They are messages sent to their specific address, messages broadcast to all NICs, and messages that qualify as a multicast for the specific card. There are three types of addressing:
Unicast - A transmission to a single interface card.
Multicast - A ...
I think that the times when operating systems responded to broadcasts pings are long gone. As far as I know every modern operating system ignores those requests as a security measure to avoid broadcast storms.
The default in Linux:
$ sysctl net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
If you want to discover machines you'...
The fact that it is dropped by routers (true!) does not mean it is not used in layer-3. Where else could it be used?
You are misunderstanding the use of directed and limited broadcasts. 255.255.255.255 is a limited broadcast: it is not passed on by routers, so it is really useful only to a member of a LAN to contact all other members of the same LAN. But ...
And it's simply, IEEE 802.11 and variants work in Layer 2 and Layer 1 in the OSI Model.
To be able to discover another host using UDP datagrams, TCP packets, or even ICMP, you need third-layer connectivity.
If you set your IP address to 192.168.0.2 subnet mask 255.255.0.0, when your PC tries to communicate with the router, it won't matter that the router address is 192.168.0.255 because from your PC's perspective, the broadcast address is 192.168.255.255.
So packets going to the router should be fine. The router will respond to 192.168.0.2 which it thinks is ...
255.255.255.255 is a broadcast address, you are sending a ping to every device on your local network and you will get a reply from every device. The ping command is only showing the first reply it gets, in your case your own PC (127.0.0.1 is loopback) was the quickest. If you use a packet sniffer (like Wireshark) you will be able to see all replies.
The answer is (d).
When netmask is 255.255.224.0 we have 5 bits of third octect for host, then the networks are:
this last one goes from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52
When netmask is 255.255.240.0 we have 4 bits of third octect for host, then the networks are:
It is a perfectly valid IP address on the network 184.108.40.206/21. The host component of the address 101.11111111 is neither all zeros, or all ones.
$ ipcalc 220.127.116.11/21
Address: 18.104.22.168 10010110.00010000.00000 101.11111111
Netmask: 255.255.248.0 = 21 11111111.11111111.11111 000.00000000
Wildcard: 0.0.7.255 00000000....
It has already been discussed that answering pings to broadcast addresses is not considered good practice anymore. You could alternativly ping the all-host multicast group which uses the IP 22.214.171.124. In theory every multicast capable host should respond to a ping to this IP, but I've heard of hosts not doing so.
For more on multicast addresses read the ...
Actually, your IP range for 192.168.2.0/28 (which is the network with the address and netmask you have given) is 192.168.2.1-192.168.2.14, and your broadcast is 192.168.2.15
here's an IPv4 calculator (there are others)
Since Windows 7, there are problems with having both the wired and wireless
adapters active at the same time. It actually surprises me that you can get as much done with
the two adapters being active in parallel.
The only iron-cast solution, in my experience, is to have one adapter enabled and the other disabled.
This apparently cleans-up whatever ...
If your IP address is 192.168.1.5, you can do like this:
FTP access with a browser
Address if you are using a non-standard port for FTP, lets say 9999:
FTP access with an FTP client (like FileZilla)
Port: (no need to specify if you are using default port 21)
Yes, level 3 broadcasts (TCP/UDP) translate into level 2 broadcasts (LAN/WLAN), so the MAC overhead is proportional to transport overhead.
However, the situation on WLAN is a bit more complicated when encryption is used, because special keys for the broadcast are needed. Unicast uses different keys, so other members of the WLAN segment can't eavesdrop on AP ...
All* wireless-to-wireless packets on Wi-Fi are relayed by the AP, always. Even unicasts. Yes, as you suspected, multicasts and broadcasts are buffered by the AP until right after the next DTIM beacon goes out, and then the AP transmits each buffered multicast or broadcast exactly once.
When the AP transmits a buffered multicast or broadcast, it does so at a ...
Not every computers can be seen. Only those that enable Network Discovery will appear in Explorer
║ Discovery │ Description ║
║ State │ ...
No. The Broadcast IP that you have noted emerges based on the IP network characteristics (the IP and the Subnet Mask), and is always the highest host address in the network the IP/Mask define.
I say that it "emerges" because the Broadcast address is not configurable. Every computer that joins that network needs to intuitively predict its Broadcast address ...
I have achieved this requirement in 2 ways on Linux devices. I am still looking for ways to achieve this on Windows devices.
By entering a static ARP entry for my gateway and then disabling ARP.
ip neighbor add 172.xx.xxx.1 lladdr 84:xx:xx:xx:xx:80 nud permanent dev eth0
The above command needs ip-full package on OpenWrt ...
CDP packets look like regular multicast Ethernet frames, sent to the 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC multicast address. (Remember that CDP is a proprietary protocol and its support is not required for Ethernet devices.) So it's quite normal that a CDP-unaware bridge simply forwards the announcements like it would do for any other multicast or broadcast frame.
Option 1: Getting broadcasts to the server
A conceptually simple, but difficult to implement solution is to have your laptop connect using a TAP VPN adapter instead of a TUN, and bridge it with the LAN interface of the VPN server. From the laptop's perspective it is directly connected to the same segment as the file server.
However, there are downsides ...
you'll need to "broadcast" the audio from pc1 using winamp or any other audio streaming software, to local shoutcast/icecast server on the network. on pc2 you'll probably need to install Virtual Audio Cable in order to set up virtual soundcard as input. then use VLC or any other media player, to play the local stream to the VAC input.
Yes it can be done. Jakuje is right that it cannot be done in TCP, however his reply does not cover UDP, which is instead used exactly for this.
I used for some time this Java program to do this, but then I discovered that Clonezilla can do it,
Multicast is supported in Clonezilla SE, which is suitable for massive clone
and this gave me the motivation ...
The 802.11 standard leaves multicast/broadcast rate selection up to implementers. So that means it's probably up to the card/firmware/driver of the WNIC you're using.
That said, hopefully your WNIC is smart enough to not try to send multicasts or broadcasts using a rate that's not marked as a Basic Rate. The Basic Rate set is the set of rates that all ...
Looks like you are going to have to set up some static routes. Get rid of the default gateway 10.10.1.1, and figure out what destinations you need to route via that IP. Then just add them manually like this for example:
# ip route add 10.0.0.0/16 via 10.10.1.1
If you get it to work properly then just put your static routes in a script when your interface ...
There must be a way to factory reset the device (if there is no dedicated switch, it can usually be done by pressing a combination of buttons on power-up or shorting specific contacts on the circuit board), I suggest reading the manual (or finding it online) and seeing how to do a factory reset.
As far as I am aware, there is no way to connect to the ...
When you shutdown a PC it is normal broadcast messages to all users. A classic shutdown would be in this form "shutdown -h +90m Installing new RAM!".
That would do a few things:
Send a broadcast (from root) to all users (local and remotely logging in) with: Shutdown. System is going down in 90 minutes. Reason: Installing new RAM!
It would ...
You can hook the login system with pam (Pluggable Authentication Modules). There is a wonderful pam module for this named pam_script. It enables to run any script in any stages of the authatentication. It will yet be called with the privileges of the sshd, so it will be impossible for the user to manipulate this feature.
You can find pam_script on https://...