This information is googlable with little effort, but here's a rough summary:
Program Files stores program components and protects them against unauthorized modification with filesystem permissions
ProgramData stores files common for all users that are not program components (eg. public caches)
%USERPROFILE\AppData\Roaming stores user-specific files that ...
Zip file format
was defined to allow fast appends without recopying the whole archive,
I don't know of a Zip/7Zip program that does it.
The Zip archive contains an inner directory that allows direct access
to any included item. The directory is stored at the end of the archive,
and all items including the directory are identified by a header.
No, the actual file data is encrypted for EFS. For this the system that performs the encryption needs to be able to access the data. If a full file system offers encryption then you do generally need system level access to setup encryption.
Modern encryption act on bits & bytes. The type of file doesn't matter for the encryption procedure; it just acts ...
I assume you have 2 unmounted partitions /dev/mmcblk0p1 (boot fat16, 100 MiB) and /dev/mmcblk0p2 (ext4, ~31,9 GB) on the first SD card to copy.
copy partitions to files :
sudo dd bs=1m if=/dev/mmcblk0p1 of=/home/pi/file_part1 status=progress
sudo dd bs=1m if=/dev/mmcblk0p2 of=/home/pi/file_part2 status=progress
The first partition is ...
Both ./ and ../ are the ways to describe a file-path. As all suggested above you can use ./ while your file is in the current folder and ../ while your specified file is in the parent directory. Generally, it is useful while your current folder and parent folder both contains the file with the same name. Then these are very helpful to get the exact file from ...