The answer is file system dependant. For FAT32 and NTFS a partition management tool makes this task faster because it does not need to move the data involved (but the smaller metdata!)
but it comes at a risk of data loss as new metadata needs to be created in the former front file system pointing to the locations of data in the former back file system.
Sounds like whatever controller you’re using isn’t up to the task. With 512 byte LBAs and a 32-bit number of them, you can address at most ~2.2 TB.
As per the extended drive documentation, the real sector count is 19,532,873,728. Compared with what fdisk reports:
32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0
v v v v v v v v v